The region of Burgundy is located between northern and southern Europe and has always been a crossroad for different civilizations. In the Middle Ages the most influential centers of monastic reform throughout Christian Europe, Cluny and Cîteaux, were located in Burgundy. Their influence was not only spiritual but concerned artistic, intellectual, social, and political subjects as well.
The Duchy of Burgundy soon became the most powerful state in Europe thanks to the skillful policy of its dukes and to the vanishing power of the King in the Hundred Years' War.
Finally in the 16th century Burgundy was annexed by the kingdom of France and largely benefited from the growing influence of Paris.
Burgundy produces some of the most expensive wine (Romanée-Conti, la Tache, Richebourg) in the world.
On 29,500 hectares (74,000 acres), Burgundy produces over 200 million bottles of mostly red (Pinot Noir, Gamay) and white (Chardonnay, Aligoté) wine. Production can be divided into five regions (north to south):
1. The Chablis Vineyards, producing exclusively white wines
2. Côtes de Beaune where most of the famous white wines come from (Meursault, Chasagne-Montrachet, Puligny-Montrachet, Savigny les Beaunes etc,)
3. Côte de Nuits where mostly the red are produced
4. Côte Chalonnaise (Chalon-sur-Saône)
5. The Maconnais (Macon)